USMLE

Cardiovascular Overview

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Cardiovascular
  1. Cardiovascular Overview
  2. CO2 Transport
  3. Heart
  4. Cardiac Impulse
  5. Blood Pressure
  6. Arteries and Arterioles
  7. Veins and Venules
  8. Capillaries
  9. Circulation
  10. Blood
  11. Hemoglobin
  12. Blood Clotting
  • Cardiovascular Overview
    • Heart is a pump that drives blood flow through vessels 
    • Roles
      • Nutrient Delivery
        • Oxygen, nutrients, hormones, ions, and fluids are delivered to the body’s tissues via the bloodstream
      • Waste Removal
        • Removal of CO2 (major metabolic by-product of cellular respiration) and other waste
      • Thermoregulation
        • Vasodilation: when body is hot, capillaries dilate to allow more heat loss
          • When dilated, more blood can pass through and lose heat to surroundings
        • Vasoconstriction: when body is cold, capillaries constrict to reduce heat loss to skin
    • Single cell layer of endothelial cells lines the inside of blood vessels and the heart
      • Important for gas exchange