USMLE

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

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Leukemias and Lymphomas
  1. Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
  2. Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL)
  3. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)
  4. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
  5. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
  6. Hairy Cell Leukemia (HCL)
  7. Hodgkin Lymphoma
  8. Burkitt Lymphoma
  9. Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL)
  10. Follicular Lymphoma
  11. Mantle Cell Lymphoma
  12. Marginal Zone Lymphoma
  13. Primary CNS Lymphoma (PCNSL)
  14. Acute T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL)
  15. Mycosis Fungoides / Sezary Syndrome

Summary

CML is a blood cell cancer of mature granulocytes caused by a t(9;22) chromosomal translocation. This translocation creates a fusion gene BCR-ABL on the now-mutated chromosome 22, which is also referred to as the Philadelphia chromosome. Since CML is a chronic or slow-presenting cancer, it generally presents asymptomatically with abnormally high numbers of mature granulocytes seen in an elderly patient. Specifically, increased neutrophils with a low LAP activity and increased basophils  may suggest a diagnosis of CML. Treatment for CML include the targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib and dasatinib, which specifically target and inhibit the BCR-ABL fusion protein.