Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

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Summary

CML is a blood cell cancer of mature granulocytes caused by a t(9;22) chromosomal translocation. This translocation creates a fusion gene BCR-ABL on the now-mutated chromosome 22, which is also referred to as the Philadelphia chromosome. Since CML is a chronic or slow-presenting cancer, it generally presents asymptomatically with abnormally high numbers of mature granulocytes seen in an elderly patient. Specifically, increased neutrophils with a low LAP activity and increased basophils  may suggest a diagnosis of CML. Treatment for CML include the targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib and dasatinib, which specifically target and inhibit the BCR-ABL fusion protein.