Medicine & USMLE

Octreotide

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GI Drugs
  1. Ondansetron
  2. Sucralfate
  3. Docusate (Stool Softener)
  4. Bulk Forming Laxatives (Psyllium, Methylcellulose)
  5. Osmotic Laxatives (Lactulose, PEG)
  6. Stimulant Laxatives (Senna, Bisacodyl)
  7. Antidiarrheals (Loperamide, Diphenoxylate-Atropine)
  8. Bismuth Subsalicylate
  9. Antacids
  10. Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs)
  11. H2 Blockers
  12. Metoclopramide
  13. Misoprostol
  14. Orlistat
  15. Octreotide

Summary

Octreotide is a medication used to treat conditions of overgrowth like gigantism and acromegaly. The drug is also used in the acute setting to treat upper gastrointestinal bleeding, such as that caused by esophageal varices.

Key Points

  • Octreotide (Sandostatin)
    • Mechanism
      • Synthetic somatostatin that inhibits the secretion of growth hormone (GH)
    • Clinical Use
      • Treats upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB)
        • Used in patients who have ruptured esophageal varices due to causes like cirrhosis
        • Reduces portal venous pressure, reducing blood flow to esophageal varices
      • Acromegaly / Gigantism
        • Acromegaly and gigantism are caused by excess growth hormone (GH) production
        • Somatostatin analogs like octreotide can block the secretion of GH
      • Diarrhea associated with certain tumors
        • Motilin, VIP, and Serotonin secreting GI tumors can cause diarrhea, which can be treated by somatostatin analogs
    • Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
      • GI Upset
        • Nausea, bloating, flatus
      • Cardiac toxicity
        • Bradycardia
        • Arrhythmias