USMLE

Mannitol

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Neuro Drugs
  1. Pyridostigmine, Neostigmine, Edrophonium
  2. Valproic Acid
  3. Naltrexone
  4. Levetiracetam
  5. Pregabalin
  6. Scopolamine
  7. Phenytoin
  8. Ethosuximide
  9. Levodopa, Carbidopa
  10. Succinylcholine
  11. Memantine
  12. Donepezil
  13. Halothane / Flurane
  14. Propofol
  15. Ergotamine
  16. Triptans
  17. Selegiline / Rasagiline
  18. Entacapone / Tolcapone
  19. Gabapentin
  20. Lamotrigine
  21. Carbamazepine
  22. Mannitol
  23. Ramelteon

Summary

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Key Points

  • Mannitol
    • Mechanism
      • Osmotic Diuretic
        • A hyperosmolar solution that draws water out of the brain and ECF and excretes it through the urine
        • Increased urine output is expected
    • Clinical Uses
      • Decrease Intracranial Pressure (ICP)
        • Cerebral edema
      • Decrease Intraocular Pressure (IOP)
        • Glaucoma
    • Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
      • Pulmonary edema
        • Can lead to fluid overload in the body
        • Observe for crackles in the lung and report immediately if present
        • Can occur if too much mannitol is given, or if mannitol accumulates in the body due to poor kidney function
        • Contraindicated in patients with CHF
      • Hypokalemia
      • Nausea, vomiting
      • Tachycardia
        • From rapid fluid loss
      • Acidosis