Cyclophosphamide

5

Summary

Coming soon...

Key Points

  • Cyclophosphamide, Ifosfamide
    • Mechanism
      • Alkylating agent
        • Inhibits protein synthesis by interfering with DNA replication
        • Inhibits activation of T-lymphocytes
    • Clinical Use
      • Cancer / Antineoplastic
        • Leukemias
        • Lymphomas
        • Multiple myeloma
        • Breast and ovarian cancer
        • Lung cancer
        • Retinoblastoma
      • Autoimmune Diseases / Anti-inflammatory
        • Polyarteritis nodosa
        • Lupus nephritis
          • A form of lupus that involves deterioration of the kidneys
        • Myasthenia gravis
    • Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
      • Hemorrhagic cystitis
        • Bladder inflammation & blood in urine
        • Common complication, usually not life-threatening
        • Treated by increasing hydration
      • Common chemotherapy side effects
        • Bone marrow suppression
          • Common side effect of many chemotherapeutic drugs due to damage of rapidly-dividing blood cell progenitors
          • Leads to anemia (low red blood cells)
            • Fatigue, dyspnea, pallor
          • Leads to leukopenia (low white blood cells)
            • Increased risk for infection
          • Leads to thrombocytopenia (low platelets)
            • Petechiae, purpura, bleeding
        • GI disturbances
          • Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea
          • Common side effect of many chemotherapeutic drugs due to damage of rapidly-dividing gut wall
          • An antiemetic may be ordered prior to chemotherapy
        • Alopecia (hair loss)