USMLE

Cisplatin

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Anti-Neoplastic Drugs
  1. Cyclophosphamide
  2. Methotrexate
  3. Tamoxifen
  4. Cisplatin
  5. Doxorubicin
  6. Imatinib
  7. Paclitaxel
  8. Rituximab
  9. Trastuzumab
  10. Vincristine

Summary

Cisplatin is a chemotherapy drug used to treat a wide variety of cancers. Side effects of cisplatin include general chemotherapy side effects like GI upset and bone marrow suppression. Side effects more specific to cisplatin include kidney damage, peripheral neuropathy and ototoxicity.

Key Points

  • Cisplatin (Platinol), Carboplatin
    • Mechanism
      • Antineoplastic
        • Alkylating-Like Agent
    • Clinical Uses
      • Cancer / Chemotherapy
        • Testicular cancer
        • Ovarian cancer
        • Advanced bladder cancer
    • Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
      • Renal toxicity
        • Closely monitor creatinine, BUN, and urine output levels
        • Kidney damage can be minimized by making sure patient is adequately hydrated
        • With decreased renal clearance, medication should either be adjusted or discontinued
      • Peripheral neuropathy
      • Ototoxicity
      • Common chemotherapy side effects
        • Bone marrow suppression
          • Common side effect of many chemotherapeutic drugs due to damage of rapidly-dividing blood cell progenitors
          • Leads to anemia (low red blood cells)
            • Fatigue, dyspnea, pallor
          • Leads to leukopenia (low white blood cells)
            • Increased risk for infection
          • Leads to thrombocytopenia (low platelets)
            • Petechiae, purpura, bleeding
        • GI disturbances
          • Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea
          • Common side effect of many chemotherapeutic drugs due to damage of rapidly-dividing gut wall
          • An antiemetic may be ordered prior to chemotherapy
        • Alopecia (hair loss)