USMLE

Pioglitazone

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Anti-Diabetic Drugs
  1. Insulin Overview
  2. Rapid Acting Insulin
  3. Short Acting Insulin
  4. Intermediate Acting Insulin
  5. Long Acting Insulin
  6. Metformin
  7. Sulfonylureas
  8. Canagliflozin
  9. Pioglitazone

Summary

Pioglitazone is an antidiabetic drug that is used to lower blood sugar in patients with type 2 diabetes. Pioglitazone works by lowering insulin resistance, so it actually has a low risk for causing hypoglycemia. Pioglitazone’s main adverse effect is cardiovascular toxicity, meaning there is a chance the pioglitazone causes a myocardial infarction or heart failure.

Key Points

  • Pioglitazone
    • Mechanism
      • Thiazolidinediones
        • Decrease insulin resistance and increase blood glucose control
        • Carry a low risk for hypoglycemia (similar to metformin)
    • Clinical Uses
      • Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    • Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
      • Cardiovascular Toxicity
        • Myocardial Infarction
        • Heart Failure
          • Can worsen pre-existing heart failure by causing fluid retention
      • Bladder Cancer