Antibiotics / Antiparasitics
  1. Penicillin Overview
  2. Penicillinase-Sensitive vs. Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillins
  3. Anti-Pseudomonal Penicillins
  4. Cephalosporins Overview
  5. 1st Generation Cephalosporins
  6. 2nd Generation Cephalosporins
  7. 3rd Generation Cephalosporins
  8. 4th Generation Cephalosporins
  9. 5th Generation Cephalosporins
  10. Carbapenems
  11. Monobactams (Aztreonam)
  12. Vancomycin
  13. Aminoglycosides
  14. Tetracyclines
  15. Tigecycline
  16. Chloramphenicol
  17. Clindamycin
  18. Linezolid
  19. Macrolides
  20. Polymyxins
  21. Sulfonamides
  22. Dapsone
  23. Trimethoprim
  24. Fluoroquinolones
  25. Daptomycin
  26. Metronidazole
  27. Rifamycins (Rifampin, Rifabutin)
  28. Isoniazid
  29. Pyrazinamide
  30. Ethambutol
  31. Chloroquine


Chloroquine is an antiparasitic drug that blocks the breakdown of heme, causing an accumulation of heme. This accumulation is toxic to parasites that infect red blood cells, such as Plasmodium in malaria. As such, chloroquine is the archetypal antiparasitic treatment for malaria. Side effects of chloroquine use include myopathy, retinopathy, and pruritus. Resistance to chloroquine occurs through drug efflux, which reduces the levels of the drug inside parasites.

Key Points

  • Chloroquine
    • Mechanism
      • Blocks breakdown of heme to hemozoin
        • Via inhibition of heme polymerase
        • Heme accumulation is toxic to plasmodia
    • Clinical Use
      • Plasmodium spp. (Malaria)
        • Chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum is treated with artemisinins, atovaquone-proguanil, mefloquine (quinidine analog)
        • P. vivax and ovale require additional primaquine treatment to kill hypnozoites
    • Adverse Effects
      • Retinopathy
        • Rare, severe side effect seen with chronic use
      • Myopathy
        • Muscle atrophy is a rare side effect seen with chronic use
      • Pruritus
        • Occurs more commonly in dark-skinned individuals
      • GI upset
        • Abdominal discomfort, vomiting, and diarrhea
      • Headaches/dizziness
    • Resistance
      • Membrane efflux pump
        • Decreases intracellular concentration of the drug