USMLE

Clindamycin

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Antibiotics / Antiparasitics
  1. Penicillin Overview
  2. Penicillinase-Sensitive vs. Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillins
  3. Anti-Pseudomonal Penicillins
  4. Cephalosporins Overview
  5. 1st Generation Cephalosporins
  6. 2nd Generation Cephalosporins
  7. 3rd Generation Cephalosporins
  8. 4th Generation Cephalosporins
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  11. Monobactams (Aztreonam)
  12. Vancomycin
  13. Aminoglycosides
  14. Tetracyclines
  15. Tigecycline
  16. Chloramphenicol
  17. Clindamycin
  18. Linezolid
  19. Macrolides
  20. Polymyxins
  21. Sulfonamides
  22. Dapsone
  23. Trimethoprim
  24. Fluoroquinolones
  25. Daptomycin
  26. Metronidazole
  27. Rifamycins (Rifampin, Rifabutin)
  28. Isoniazid
  29. Pyrazinamide
  30. Ethambutol
  31. Chloroquine

Summary

Clindamycin is an antibiotic that is used clinically to treat anaerobic bacterial infections, especially those that arise above the level of the diaphragm. It works by targeting the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes, blocking bacterial protein synthesis and stopping bacterial growth. One side effect commonly associated with clindamycin is the development of pseudomembranous colitis due to overgrowth of clostridium difficile bacteria.

Key Points

  • Clindamycin
    • Mechanism
      • Reversibly binds 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes
        • Blocks peptide transfer (translocation) and bacterial protein synthesis
      • Bacteriostatic
    • Clinical Use
      • Anaerobic infections
        • e.g. Bacteroides spp., Clostridium perfringens
        • Aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, bacterial vaginosis, oral infections
        • Mnemonic: above the diaphragm (metronidazole for anaerobes below the diaphragm)
      • Invasive group A streptococcal (S. pyogenes) infection
    • Adverse Effects
      • Pseudomembranous colitis (C. difficile overgrowth)
        • Clindamycin use is highly associated with C. difficile infection
      • Fever
      • Diarrhea