Medicine & USMLE

Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)

Cardiovascular Drugs
  1. Beta Blockers
  2. ACE Inhibitors
  3. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
  4. Adenosine
  5. Atropine
  6. Amiodarone
  7. DHP Calcium Channel Blockers
  8. Non-DHP Calcium Channel Blockers
  9. Clonidine
  10. Clopidogrel
  11. Digoxin
  12. Dopamine
  13. Epinephrine
  14. Hydralazine
  15. Nitroglycerin
  16. Norepinephrine
  17. Statins


Coming soon...

Key Points

  • Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
    • Key Drugs (-sartan endings)
      • Losartan
      • Valsartan
    • Mechanism
      • Prevents angiotensin II from binding to the AT1 receptors, which are responsible for vasoconstriction and the release of aldosterone
      • Since ARBs block these receptors, the result is vasodilation and inhibition of sodium/water reabsorption at the kidney
    • Clinical Use
      • Hypertension
        • Used in patients who can’t tolerate ACE inhibitors
      • Heart failure
      • Diabetic nephropathy
    • Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
      • Teratogenic
        • Causes renal and cardiac defects or death of the fetus
      • Hyperkalemia
        • Teach patient to avoid potassium supplements, potassium salt substitute, and potassium-sparing diuretics
      • Reduces GFR
        • Monitor for elevated creatinine, BUN and decreased urine output
        • Usually avoided in patients with acute renal failure (AKI)
      • Hypotension
        • Common side effect of all antihypertensives
        • Closely monitor patient’s blood pressure
        • Instruct patient to get up slowly to avoid dizziness associated with orthostatic hypotension
      • Hypoglycemia
      • Angioedema
        • Less common than with ACE inhibitors