USMLE

Echinococcus granulosus

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Parasites
  1. Giardia lamblia
  2. Toxoplasma gondii
  3. Entamoeba histolytica
  4. Cryptosporidium
  5. Naegleria fowleri
  6. Trypanosoma brucei
  7. Plasmodium Overview
  8. Plasmodium Disease (Malaria)
  9. Babesia
  10. Trypanosoma cruzi
  11. Leishmania
  12. Trichomonas vaginalis
  13. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)
  14. Ascaris lumbricoides (giant roundworm)
  15. Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworm)
  16. Ancyclostoma and Necator
  17. Trichinella spiralis
  18. Trichuris trichiura (whipworm)
  19. Toxocara canis
  20. Onchocerca volvulus
  21. Loa loa
  22. Wuchereria bancrofti
  23. Taenia solium
  24. Diphyllobothrium latum
  25. Echinococcus granulosus
  26. Schistosoma
  27. Clonorchis sinensis
  28. Sarcoptes scabiei (Scabies)
  29. Pediculus humanis and Phthirus pubis (Lice)

Summary

Echinococcus granulosus is a tapeworm parasite that is transmitted through dog feces. Sheeps are intermediates hosts of Echinococcus granulosus. An infection presents with hydatid cyst formations in the liver, characterized by eggshell calcification. After the hydatid cysts grow, they can rupture, causing anaphylaxis. Finally, the main treatment option is Albendazole. 

Key Points

  • Echinococcus granulosus
    • Characteristics
      • Type of cestode (tapeworm) parasite
    • Transmission
      • Ingestion of eggs in dog feces
      • Sheep are an intermediate host
        • Dogs that consume organs of home-processed sheep become infected
    • Presentation
      • Hydatid cyst in liver
        • Appears as eggshell calcifications on CT
        • Cyst rupture → Anaphylaxis
      • Pulmonary hydatidosis / lung involvement
    • Treatment
      • Albendazole