USMLE

Toxocara canis

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Parasites
  1. Giardia lamblia
  2. Toxoplasma gondii
  3. Entamoeba histolytica
  4. Cryptosporidium
  5. Naegleria fowleri
  6. Trypanosoma brucei
  7. Plasmodium Overview
  8. Plasmodium Disease (Malaria)
  9. Babesia
  10. Trypanosoma cruzi
  11. Leishmania
  12. Trichomonas vaginalis
  13. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)
  14. Ascaris lumbricoides (giant roundworm)
  15. Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworm)
  16. Ancyclostoma and Necator
  17. Trichinella spiralis
  18. Trichuris trichiura (whipworm)
  19. Toxocara canis
  20. Onchocerca volvulus
  21. Loa loa
  22. Wuchereria bancrofti
  23. Taenia solium
  24. Diphyllobothrium latum
  25. Echinococcus granulosus
  26. Schistosoma
  27. Clonorchis sinensis
  28. Sarcoptes scabiei (Scabies)
  29. Pediculus humanis and Phthirus pubis (Lice)
  • Toxocara canis
    • Nematode (roundworm) 
    • Disease
      • Visceral larva migrans
        • Nematodes migrate to blood through the intestinal wall
        • Granuloma formation (MB)
          • Inflammation and damage in organs
        • Multiple organs can be affected, but not all will be
          • Heart (myocarditis)
          • Liver (hepatomegaly, pain)
          • Lungs (Loffler’s syndrome)
          • CNS (seizures, coma)
      • Ocular larva migrans
        • Unilateral vision loss, since the parasite will usually only end up in one eye, leading to strabismus
        • Leukocoria
        • Visual impairment
    • Transmission/Risk factors
      • Fecal-oral
        • Ingestion of eggs
        • Soil contaminated with dog/cat feces
        • Humans are accidental host, like T. gondii
      • Dogs receive the parasite through contaminated meat
    • Diagnosis
      • CBC for eosinophilia
      • ELISA
        • IgG antibodies to Toxocara antigens are found
    • Treatment
      • Bendazoles