USMLE

Coronavirus

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Viruses - RNA Viruses
  1. HIV: Microbiology and Characteristics
  2. HIV: Clinical Course
  3. Reovirus
  4. Picornavirus Overview
  5. Poliovirus
  6. Echovirus
  7. Rhinovirus
  8. Coxsackievirus
  9. Hepatitis A Virus (HAV)
  10. Hepevirus (Hepatitis E Virus)
  11. Calicivirus
  12. Flavivirus
  13. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
  14. Yellow Fever Virus
  15. Dengue Virus
  16. St. Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Virus
  17. Zika Virus
  18. Togavirus
  19. Rubella
  20. Retrovirus
  21. Coronavirus
  22. Orthomyxovirus
  23. Paramyxovirus
  24. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
  25. Parainfluenza Virus (Croup)
  26. Measles
  27. Mumps
  28. Rhabdovirus
  29. Filovirus
  30. Arenavirus
  31. Bunyavirus
  32. Deltavirus

Key Points

  • Coronaviruses
    • Characteristics
      • RNA viruses
        • replicate in the cytoplasm of cells
        • Single-stranded
      • + sense
      • Linear chromosome
      • Enveloped
      • Helical capsid
  • Presentation
    • Common cold
      • Presents with acute bronchitis (cough)
    • SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and MERS (Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome)
      • Non-specific prodrome with fever/chills, malaise, myalgias, nausea/vomiting, headache
      • Pneumonia
        • Cough, shortness of breath
    • Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19)
      • Also known as SARS-CoV-2
      • Transmission
        • Respiratory droplets
        • Transfer from contaminated surfaces
        • Airborne may be possible
      • Presentation
        • Incubation period lasts 5-14 days
        • Pneumonia
          • Presents with fever, cough, dyspnea and hypoxia
        • Myalgias
        • Diarrhea
        • Loss of smell/taste
      • Diagnosis
        • Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT/PCR)
      • Treatment
        • Supportive care
        • Remdesivir in severe disease
        • Dexamethasone may be added for patients requiring ventilatory support