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Calicivirus

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Key Points

  • Caliciviruses
    • Characteristics
      • RNA virus
        • replicates in the cytoplasm of cells
        • Single-stranded
      • + sense
      • Linear chromosome
      • No envelope
      • Icosahedral capsid
    • Medical importance
      • Norovirus
        • Formerly known as “Norwalk virus”
          • First isolated during school outbreak in Norwalk, OH
        • Transmission
          • Direct contact or fecal oral
          • More common in winter
          • May be related to undercooked shellfish
        • Presentation
          • Gastroenteritis
            • Most common cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis
            • Damage to small intestine microvilli causes diarrhea
            • Reduced gastric motility causes vomiting
        • Diagnosis
          • Most diagnoses are clinical
          • Anti-Norovirus IgM
        • Treatment
          • Supportive care; usually self-resolving in 1-2 days