USMLE

Reovirus

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Viruses - RNA Viruses
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Key Points

  • Reoviruses (FA 2019 p167)
    • Characteristics
      • RNA virus
        • replicate in the cytoplasm of cells
        • Double-stranded
        • + sense
      • Linear chromosome
      • 10-12 segmented genome
        • Capable of antigenic shift
          • Reassortment of entire genome segments as opposed to single point mutations (antigenic drift) lead to major shifts in phenotype, causing pandemics
      • No envelope
      • Icosahedral (double) capsid
    • Presentation
      • Coltivirus
        • Transmission
          • by Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor spp.)
        • Presentation
          • Colorado Tick fever (fever, rash)
        • Diagnosis
          • RT-PCR
        • Treatment
          • Supportive
      • Rotavirus
        • Transmission
          • fecal-oral
          • Usually affects children during winter, esp. in daycare centers, kindergartens
        • Presentation
          • gastroenteritis
            • watery diarrhea in US (may be fatal in children)
              • Villous destruction with atrophy leads to decreased absorption of Na+ and loss of K+
        • Diagnosis
          • Stool rotavirus antigen
          • RT-PCR also used
        • Treatment
          • Supportive; rehydration therapy
        • Prophylaxis
          • Live-attenuated vaccine
            • Rare risk of intussusception (1 in 10,000 infants)
            • CDC recommends routine vaccination of all infants except those with a history of intussusception or SCID