USMLE

Amanita Phalloides

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Toxicology
  1. Cyanide Poisoning
  2. Tetrodotoxin
  3. Methanol Poisoning
  4. Ethylene Glycol Poisoning
  5. Ciguatoxin (Ciguatera Fish Poisoning)
  6. Spoiled Fish (Scombroid) Poisoning
  7. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
  8. Amanita Phalloides

Summary

Amanita mushrooms, or death cap mushrooms, contain alpha-amanitin. This toxin inhibits RNA polymerase 2. This will prevent messenger RNA synthesis, leading to apoptosis. Ingestion of Amanita mushrooms causes GI symptoms in the first 6 to 24 hours, including vomiting, diarrhea and cramping. In severe cases of toxicity, this can lead to liver and renal failure. Treatment is supportive and includes gastric lavage and suction, as well as liver transplant in severe cases.