Medicine & USMLE

Fluticasone & Budesonide

Respiratory Pharm
  1. Ipratropium vs Tiotropium
  2. 1st Generation Antihistamines
  3. 2nd-Generation Antihistamines
  4. Albuterol vs Salmeterol
  5. Fluticasone & Budesonide
  6. Montelukast & Zafirlukast
  7. Zileuton
  8. Omalizumab
  9. Cromolyn & Nedocromil
  10. Guaifenesin
  11. Endothelin Receptor Antagonists (Bosentan)
  12. Prostaglandin Analogs (Epoprostenol, Iloprost)
  13. Theophylline


Fluticasone and Budesonide are inhaled corticosteroids used to treat asthma. As inhaled corticosteroid agents, these drugs work to suppress inflammation in the airways. Fluticasone and budesonide are commonly used to manage chronic asthma  and can reduce the number and severity of acute asthma exacerbations. A major side effect of inhaled corticosteroids is oral thrush, which can be prevented by rinsing one’s mouth after use.

Key Points

  • Fluticasone and Budesonide
    • Drug Names
      • Fluticasone
      • Budesonide
    • Mechanism
      • Inhaled corticosteroids
        • Anti-inflammatory
          • Inhaled corticosteroids inhibit the formation of inflammatory mediators (eg, cytokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes) implicated in bronchial asthma.
          • Reduce leukocyte extravasation and induce apoptosis of inflammatory cells ( macrophages, lymphocytes, and eosinophils).
            • Patients treated with glucocorticoids for a few weeks show significantly reduced airway inflammation.
            • Glucocorticoids decrease the amount of mucus produced by goblet cells, further reducing the airway obstruction.
          • Inactivate NF-KB (transcription factor responsible for cytokine production
    • Indications
      • Asthma
        • Inhaled steroids primarily used for chronic asthma management
          • Can reduce the number and severity of acute asthma exacerbations
        • Corticosteroids have the strongest and most predictable effects on the inflammatory component of asthma.
      • Allergic rhinitis (nasal spray)
    • Adverse effects
      • Oral thrush
        • Inhaled corticosteroids weaken the local immune response leading to opportunistic colonization of oral mucosa by candida.
          • Prevent by rinsing mouth out after use or using spacer