Medicine & USMLE

Posterior Pituitary

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Endocrine & Hormones
  1. Leptin
  2. Ghrelin
  3. Protein Hormones
  4. Steroid Hormones
  5. Insulin
  6. Diabetes
  7. Glucagon
  8. Epinephrine
  9. Cortisol
  10. Thyroid Hormones
  11. Calcitonin
  12. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
  13. Anterior Pituitary
  14. Prolactin
  15. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
  16. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
  17. Growth Hormone (GH)
  18. Posterior Pituitary

Summary

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Key Points

  • Posterior Pituitary
    • Structure:
      • Made up of axonal projections from hypothalamus
      • One of two lobes of pituitary gland, located beneath the Hypothalamus
    • Hormones Background:
      • Origin: Hormones made in hypothalamus
        • Stored in posterior pituitary
        • Posterior pituitary hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and undergo axonal transport to be stored in the posterior pituitary
      • Trigger: Neural signals from hypothalamus
        • Secretion of hormones is mediated by depolarization of the nerve terminals extending from the hypothalamus
      • Type: Peptide
    • Releases:
      • Vasopressin/Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
        • Increases water reabsorption
        • Stimulates collecting ducts of kidneys to reabsorb more water Increases blood pressure
      • Oxytocin 
        • Stimulates uterine contractions 
        • Stimulates milk ejections from breasts