USMLE

Growth Hormone (GH)

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Endocrine & Hormones
  1. Leptin
  2. Ghrelin
  3. Protein Hormones
  4. Steroid Hormones
  5. Insulin
  6. Diabetes
  7. Glucagon
  8. Epinephrine
  9. Cortisol
  10. Thyroid Hormones
  11. Calcitonin
  12. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
  13. Anterior Pituitary
  14. Prolactin
  15. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
  16. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
  17. Growth Hormone (GH)
  18. Posterior Pituitary

Summary

Growth hormone, or GH for short, is a protein hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland. The anterior pituitary gland produces growth hormone, in response to upstream stimulation by growth-hormone releasing hormone or GHRH from the hypothalamus. Downstream, growth hormone targets muscle and bone cells to stimulate muscle and bone growth.

Key Points

  • Growth Hormone (GH)
    • Type: Peptide
    • Origin: Anterior Pituitary
    • Trigger: Stimulation by GHRH from hypothalamus
      • GHRH = Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone
    • Target: Muscle and Bone
      • GH targets a variety of cells throughout the body. Muscle and bone are two prominent examples.
      • Effect: Stimulates growth
        • Increases:
          • Rate of mitosis
          • Cell size
          • Rate of transcription/translation