USMLE

Campylobacter jejuni

1,343 views
Bacteria - Gram Negative
  1. Neisseria spp: Overview
  2. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  3. Neisseria meningitidis
  4. Haemophilus influenzae
  5. Bordetella pertussis
  6. Brucella
  7. Legionella pneumophila
  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Overview
  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Disease
  10. Salmonella Overview
  11. Salmonella typhi
  12. Salmonella enteritidis
  13. Shigella
  14. Yersinia enterocolitica
  15. Escherichia coli: Overview
  16. Enterohemorrhagic E. Coli (EHEC)
  17. Enterotoxigenic E. Coli (ETEC)
  18. Klebsiella pneumoniae
  19. Campylobacter jejuni
  20. Vibrio spp.
  21. Helicobacter pylori
  22. Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme Disease)
  23. Leptospira interrogans
  24. Treponema pallidum: Overview
  25. Treponema pallidum: Diagnosis
  26. Congenital syphilis
  27. Chlamydia: Overview
  28. Chlamydia trachomatis
  29. Chlamydia pneumoniae vs. psittaci
  30. Rickettsia rickettsii
  31. Rickettsia typhi vs. prowazekii
  32. Anaplasma vs. Ehrlichia
  33. Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)

Campylobacter jejuni 

  • Characteristics
    • Gram negative corkscrew-shaped rod
      • First test in algorithm, narrows scope of bacteria
      • Possesses filaments with a corkscrew-appearance
    • Oxidase +
      • All gram negative curved rods are oxidase positive 
    • Grows at 42ºC
      • Specific to Campylobacter jejuni 
  • Transmission
    • Fecal-oral (contaminated food/water)
      • ingestion of undercooked poultry or meat, unpasteurized milk
    • Contact with infected animals (cows, dogs, sheep, chickens) is also a risk factor
  • Presentation
    • Major cause of bloody diarrhea, especially in children
      • Most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in the US
      • Initially begins as watery diarrhea, and then progresses to bloody diarrhea
      • Invasion of GI mucosa by bacteria leads to inflammation and bleeding
      • May also present with abdominal cramps
    • Often complicated by
      • Guillain-Barre syndrome
        • Acute polyneuropathy with ascending muscle weakness
        • Loss of deep tendon reflexes
        • Paralysis of respiratory muscles may be fatal
      • Reactive arthritis
        • Unilateral arthritis of the large joints (e.g. knee).
        • Associated with conjunctivitis and urethritis
  • Diagnosis 
    • Stool culture
      • gold standard for diagnosis
  • Treatment
    • Supportive care (intravenous hydration and electrolyte repletion) for all patients
    • Macrolides (erythromycin/azithromycin) for severe infections