USMLE

Neisseria meningitidis

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Bacteria - Gram Negative
  1. Neisseria spp: Overview
  2. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  3. Neisseria meningitidis
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  15. Escherichia coli: Overview
  16. Enterohemorrhagic E. Coli (EHEC)
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  21. Helicobacter pylori
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  25. Treponema pallidum: Diagnosis
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  27. Chlamydia: Overview
  28. Chlamydia trachomatis
  29. Chlamydia pneumoniae vs. psittaci
  30. Rickettsia rickettsii
  31. Rickettsia typhi vs. prowazekii
  32. Anaplasma vs. Ehrlichia
  33. Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)

Neisseria meningitidis 

  • Unique Characteristics
    • See Neisseria Overview for characteristics to all Neisseria spp.
    • Polysaccharide capsule 
      • Increased risk in asplenic patients, since spleen works to remove encapsulated organisms
      • Contrast vs. N gonorrhoeae - no capsule
    • Maltose acid detection 
      • Contrast vs. N gonorrhoeae - no maltose acid detection 
  • Transmitted via respiratory droplets/direct contact
    • Common in college students and military, between people in close proximity
  • Presentation
    • Meningitis
    • Adrenal hemorrhage (Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome)
      • Seen in disseminated infection (septicemia)
      • Presents with adrenal insufficiency, fever, DIC (bleeding), shock
    • Fever, chills
  • Vaccine
    • Available for at-risk individuals
    • Does not cover all serogroups (e.g. Group B)
    • Contrast vs. N gonorrhoeae - no vaccine 
  • Treatment
    • Penicillin G
      • First-line agent for treatment of active infection (without meningitis)
      • Not useful for prophylaxis (use rifampin)
    • Ceftriaxone
      • First-line for bacterial meningitis
    • Rifampin for prevention in close contacts