USMLE

Strep pneumoniae: Presentation

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Bacteria - Gram Positive
  1. Staph aureus: Overview
  2. Staph aureus: Presentation
  3. Methicillin-Resistant Staph aureus (MRSA)
  4. Staph saprophyticus
  5. Strep pneumoniae: Overview
  6. Strep pneumoniae: Presentation
  7. Strep viridans
  8. Strep pyogenes: Overview
  9. Strep pyogenes: Presentation
  10. Strep agalactiae
  11. Strep bovis
  12. Enterococcus
  13. Bacillus anthracis
  14. Bacillus cereus
  15. Clostridium tetani
  16. Clostridium perfringens
  17. Clostridium botulinum
  18. Clostridium difficile
  19. Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  20. Listeria monocytogenes
  21. Nocardia
  22. Actinomyces

Streptococcus pneumoniae

  • Presentation
    • Pneumonia
      • Most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia - hence the name, strep pneumoniae
      • Associated with “rusty” sputum
    • Meningitis
      • Most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults
    • Otitis media and sinusitis
      • The most common organisms that cause otitis media are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella. 
    • Sepsis
      • Severe bacteremia can lead to sepsis
  • Treatment
    • Preventative
      • pneumococcal capsular vaccine (PCV)
        • Conjugated (to diphtheria toxin)
          • Capsule is not very immunogenic; attaching protein toxin increases immune response and duration of efficacy
        • Children (infants) 
        • Protects against 13 serotypes 
      • pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)
        • No conjugated protein
        • Adults (elderly, high-risk) 
        • Protects against 23 serotypes 
    • Medical
      • Penicillin/amoxicillin (light) or ceftriaxone (severe)
        • Ceftriaxone used in meningitis or hospitalized pneumonia
        • Amoxicillin or penicillin used to treat otitis media and outpatient pneumonia
        • resistant strains are treated with vancomycin