USMLE

Large Intestine

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Digestive
  1. Gastrin
  2. Pepsin
  3. Amylase
  4. Lipase
  5. Trypsin
  6. CCK
  7. Secretin
  8. GI System
  9. Ingestion
  10. Liver
  11. Bile
  12. Exocrine Pancreas
  13. Endocrine Pancreas
  14. Small Intestine
  15. Large Intestine
  16. GI Nervous Control
  • Large Intestine (colon)
    • Structure 
      • Ascending → Transverse → Descending → Sigmoid → Rectum
      • Rectum stores feces until elimination through the anus 
        • Anus consists of sphincter muscles (internal and external)
    • Absorbs water and inorganic ions (electrolytes)
      • Absorbing too little water causes diarrhea (dilutes feces), and too much causes constipation (concentrates feces)
      • Cholera is caused when bacteria attacks intestinal lining, which decreases water absorption and leads to death by dehydration  
    • Contains a variety of bacteria
      • Aids in digestion of nutrients that our enzymes could not process alone
      • Metabolize remaining carbohydrates into short-chain fatty acids
      • Synthesizes vitamins