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Digestive

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Large Intestine

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  • Large Intestine (colon)
    • Structure 
      • Ascending → Transverse → Descending → Sigmoid → Rectum
      • Rectum stores feces until elimination through the anus 
        • Anus consists of sphincter muscles (internal and external)
    • Absorbs water and inorganic ions (electrolytes)
      • Absorbing too little water causes diarrhea (dilutes feces), and too much causes constipation (concentrates feces)
      • Cholera is caused when bacteria attacks intestinal lining, which decreases water absorption and leads to death by dehydration  
    • Contains a variety of bacteria
      • Aids in digestion of nutrients that our enzymes could not process alone
      • Metabolize remaining carbohydrates into short-chain fatty acids
      • Synthesizes vitamins