Medicine & USMLE


  1. Renin
  2. Angiotensin II
  3. Aldosterone
  4. ADH
  5. RAAS System
  6. Kidney Overview
  7. Nephron Structure
  8. Glomerulus
  9. Proximal Tubule
  10. Loop of Henle
  11. Distal Tubule
  12. Collecting Duct
  • Glomerulus 
    • Tuft of capillaries separated by a thin layer of cells from Bowman’s space/capsule
      • Collectively referred to as the renal corpuscle.
      • The layers of cells (epithelia) serve as a filter.
    • Filtration of blood produces filtrate
      • Hydrostatic pressure drives fluid from blood (capillaries) into filtrate (capsular space)
        • Filtration rate is called GFR (glomerular filtration rate)
          • Increased with higher systemic blood pressure
          • Increased with more blood flow
            • Circulating blood enters via afferent arteriole and exits through the efferent arteriole.
      • Large molecules like proteins and cells are prevented from entering filtrate