Medicine & USMLE


  1. TNF-alpha
  2. IL-1
  3. IL-2
  4. IL-3
  5. IL-4
  6. IL-5
  7. IL-6
  8. IL-8
  9. IL-10
  10. IL-12
  11. TGF-beta
  12. IFN-alpha and IFN-beta
  13. IFN-gamma


Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) for short, is a cytokine released by a wide variety of cell types. Its two main functions are to promote tissue healing and regeneration after injury, and to extinguish or resolve the inflammatory response.

Key Points

  • Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta)
    • Secreted by most cells in the body
      • including T-cells, platelets, macrophages, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes
    • Major anti-inflammatory cytokine and growth factor
      • Important in resolution of immune response, wound healing, and tissue regeneration
    • Implicated in formation of scar tissue (e.g. keloids)