USMLE

Dactinomycin, Actinomycin D

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Oncology Pharm
  1. Bleomycin
  2. Dactinomycin, Actinomycin D
  3. Doxorubicin, Daunorubicin
  4. Azathioprine, 6-MP
  5. Cladribine
  6. Cytarabine
  7. Busulfan
  8. Cyclophosphamide, Ifosfamide
  9. Nitrosoureas
  10. Paclitaxel
  11. Vincristine, Vinblastine
  12. Cisplatin, Carboplatin, Oxaliplatin
  13. Etoposide, Teniposide
  14. Irinotecan, Topotecan
  15. Bevacizumab
  16. Erlotinib
  17. Cetuximab, Panitumumab
  18. Imatinib, Dasatinib
  19. Rituximab
  20. Bortezomib, Carfilzomib
  21. Trastuzumab
  22. Dabrafenib, Vemurafenib
  23. Raloxifene and Tamoxifen
  24. Hydroxyurea
  25. Procarbazine

Summary

Dactinomycin and actinomycin D are two interchangeable names for the same intercalating agent. By intercalating into DNA, this drug prevents RNA polymerases from properly accessing the strands of DNA, thereby preventing RNA synthesis and subsequent protein synthesis, particularly in rapidly dividing cells. Dactinomycin is used for the treatment of childhood tumors, but patients taking this drug may also experience myelosuppression. 

Key Points

  • Dactinomycin also known as Actinomycin D
    • Mechanism
      • Intercalates into DNA
        • Molecules insert between two strands of DNA → prevents RNA synthesis
    • Clinical Use
      • Used for childhood tumors
        • Wilms tumor
        • Ewing sarcoma
        • rhabdomyosarcoma
    • Adverse Effects
      • Myelosuppression (obvious)