USMLE

Cisplatin, Carboplatin, Oxaliplatin

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Oncology Pharm
  1. Bleomycin
  2. Dactinomycin, Actinomycin D
  3. Doxorubicin, Daunorubicin
  4. Azathioprine, 6-MP
  5. Cladribine
  6. Cytarabine
  7. Busulfan
  8. Cyclophosphamide, Ifosfamide
  9. Nitrosoureas
  10. Paclitaxel
  11. Vincristine, Vinblastine
  12. Cisplatin, Carboplatin, Oxaliplatin
  13. Etoposide, Teniposide
  14. Irinotecan, Topotecan
  15. Bevacizumab
  16. Erlotinib
  17. Cetuximab, Panitumumab
  18. Imatinib, Dasatinib
  19. Rituximab
  20. Bortezomib, Carfilzomib
  21. Trastuzumab
  22. Dabrafenib, Vemurafenib
  23. Raloxifene and Tamoxifen
  24. Hydroxyurea
  25. Procarbazine

Summary

Cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin are all platinum-containing drugs that function as chemotherapeutics by crosslinking DNA via their platinum atoms. They are useful in the treatment of solid tumors, but patients taking these drugs can experience nephrotoxicity, including Fanconi syndrome, which can be prevented with the administration of amifostine. Other side effects to note include ototoxicity and peripheral neuropathy.

Key Points

  • Platinum Analogs (cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin)
    • Mechanism
      • Crosslinks DNA
    • Clinical use
      • Solid tumors
        • Testicular cancer
        • Bladder cancer
        • Ovarian cancer
        • Lung cancer
    • Adverse effects 
      • Nephrotoxicity
        • Including acute tubular necrosis and Fanconi syndrome 
          • Can be prevented with amifostine and chloride (saline) diuresis
            • Amifostine is a free radical scavenger 
      • Ototoxicity 
        • Can cause sensorineural hearing loss and deafness
      • Peripheral neuropathy