- Citric Acid Cycle (TCA Cycle)
- Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
- Cori Cycle
- De Novo Purine Synthesis
- De Novo Pyrimidine Synthesis
- Purine Salvage
- Purine Excretion
- Ethanol Metabolism
- Pyruvate Metabolism
- HMP Shunt (Pentose Phosphate Pathway)
- Galactose Metabolism
- Sorbitol (Polyol) Pathway
- Urea Cycle
- Alanine (Cahill) Cycle
- Catecholamine Synthesis & Breakdown
- Homocysteine Metabolism
- Fatty Acid Synthesis (Citrate Shuttle)
- Fatty Acid Breakdown (Carnitine Shuttle)
- Propionic Acid Pathway
- Fructose Metabolism
- Regulation by Fructose-2,6-Bisphosphate (F-2,6-BP)
Homocysteine can be metabolized down two different pathways: (1) methylation to methionine, (2) or transsulfuration to cystathionine with the eventual formation of cysteine.
Production of methionine from homocysteine is catalyzed by methionine synthase, which requires the Vitamin B9 (Folate)-derived 5-MTHF and Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin). Therefore, decreases in either folate or cobalamin can lead to increases in homocysteine (see Vitamins B9 and B12 Deficiencies). Notably, 5-MTHF is regenerated by MTHFR, and defects in MTHFR can lead to excess homocysteine and homocystinuria (see Homocystinuria - coming soon).
Production of cystathionine and eventually cysteine occurs through a different set of reactions. Namely, cystathionine synthase combines homocysteine and serine to produce cystathionine, using Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) as a cofactor. The cystathionine is then cleaved to produce cysteine.
Find this Homocysteine Metabolism mnemonic and more Biochemical Pathways mnemonics among Pixorize's visual mnemonics for the USMLE Step 1 and NBME Shelf Exams.