Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Deficiency
Thiamine Deficiency is caused by low levels of thiamine, also known as Vitamin B1, and it is common in alcoholics. The clinical picture of Vitamin B1 deficiency is known as beriberi, of which there are two main types: dry beriberi and wet beriberi.
Dry beriberi describes neurological symptoms, and includes Wernicke encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome. Classically, Wernicke encephalopathy is characterized by confusion (encephalopathy), ataxia, and nystagmus. Korsakoff syndrome is a more severe finding that includes confabulations. Radiographic imaging of these patients typically reveals lesions at the mamillary bodies and thalamus.
Wet beriberi describes cardiovascular effects of thiamine deficiency, and can include high output heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy.
Find Thiamine Deficiency and other Vitamins among Pixorize's visual mnemonics for the USMLE Step 1 and NBME shelf exams.